Saturday, 19 October 2013

ਸਧਾਰਨ ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਕਾਲ سدھارن ورتمان کال Present indefinite tense

I would like to start the study of tenses with the easiest of them all: the present indefinite or simple present tense. Here are few examples.

I go.
ਮੈਂ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹਾਂ। / میں جاندا ہاں۔

We dance.
ਅਸੀਂ ਨੱਚਦੇ ਹਾਂ। / اسیں نچدے ہاں۔

He speaks.
ਉਹ ਬੋਲਦਾ ਹੈ। / اوہ بولدا ہے۔

Now the way to conjugate them is to remove the ending -ਨਾ/ਣਾ and add the suitable endings plus the conjugated form of the verb "to be" (ਹੋਣਾ/ہونا) as given in the previous post.

The endings for the plural masculine pronouns is -ਦੇ and for plural feminine it's -ਦੀਆਂ while for masculine singulars, it's -ਦਾ and for feminine singulars, it's -ਦੀ।

Let's take example of two verbs: ਕਰਨਾ/کرنا (to do) and ਬੋਲਣਾ/بولنا (to speak). It should be noted that the case of gender would not be explicitly distinguished in the future. In ਕਰਨਾ I have shown each gender differently but like in ਬੋਲਣਾ, I would assume that the student knows how to change the gender i.e.  ਦਾ to ਦੇ and ਦੀ to ਦੀਆਂ।

ਕਰਨਾ/کرنا (to do)

ਬੋਲਣਾ/بولنا (to speak)

I speak.                                   ਮੈਂ ਬੋਲਦਾ/ਬੋਲਦੀ ਹਾਂ।
                                                میں بولدا/بولدی ہاں

You speak.                               ਤੂੰ ਬੋਲਦਾ/ਬੋਲਦੀ ਹੈਂ।
                                                توں بولدا/بولدی ہیں۔

He/She/It speaks.                  ਉਹ ਬੋਲਦਾ/ਬੋਲਦੀ ਹੈ।
                                                اوہ بولدا/بولدی ہے۔

We speak.                        ਅਸੀਂ ਬੋਲਦੇ/ਬੋਲਦੀਆਂ ਹਾਂ।
                                            اسیں بولدے/بولدیاں ہاں۔

You speak.                     ਤੁਸੀਂ ਬੋਲਦੇ/ਬੋਲਦੀਆਂ ਹੋ/ਹੋਂ।
                                      تسیں بولدے/بولدیاں ہو/ہوں۔

They speak.                     ਉਹ ਬੋਲਦੇ/ਬੋਲਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ।
                                              اوہ بولدے/بولدیاں ہن۔

For plural pronouns (ਅਸੀਂ, ਤੁਸੀਂ, ਉਹ), if the concerned group has both male and female members, the conjugation is done as you'd do it for the all masculine group!

* Please note that the ending for "to be" verb which is added to the feminine plural second-person pronoun ਤੁਸੀਂ is ਹੋਂ and not ਹੋ।


  1. Babandeep,
    What does the dot do? You mention in your note at the bottom that there is a dot next to horha. And I see it multiple times above kanna.

    Thanks for the help!

    1. Hi Rupinder,
      Check out the new post about these symbols!