Tuesday, 21 January 2014

ਨਾਸਕੀਕਰਨ ناسکیکرن Nasalization

Punjabi (Gurmukhi) has two symbols for indicating nasal sounds.

One of these, the dot (ਂ) is called bindi (ਬਿੰਦੀ/بندی) in Punjabi. Along with the other one, the tippi (ਟਿੱਪੀ/ٹپی ੰ ), it's a sign used for nasalization, for example, in a velar nasal (the 'n' sound in words ending in '-ing') or for a \m\ before certain consonants (-mb, -mp etc.).

As an illustration, 'big' written in Punjabi would be 'ਬਿਗ/بگ' but 'bing' is written as 'ਬਿੰਗ/بنگ'. Similarly, while 'log' is written as 'ਲੌਗ/لوگ', 'long' is written as 'ਲੌਂਗ/لونگ' with the bindi/tippi indicating that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.

One more thing! There are rules as to which vowel sign (ਮਾਤਰਾ/ماترا) employs what nasal symbol. Also note that these symbols are for Gurmukhi script, Shahmukhi script uses only one symbol 'noonguna' (ں) for nasalization.

Bindi: used with kanna (ਾ), bihari (ੀ), laan (ੇ), dulaavan (ੈ), hora (ੋ) and kanora (ੌ).

Tippi: used with mukta (no vowel), sihari (ਿ), aunkar (ੁ) and dulainkar (ੂ). The only exception is with aunkar and dulainkar when they are used with oora (ੳ) i.e. ਉ and ਊ use bindi and not tippi.

Let's look at all the cases one by one.


1. ਕੰਨਾ/Kanna

ਕਾਂ (crow)
ਮਾਂ (mother)
ਸਾਂਝ (partnership/relationship)

2. ਬਿਹਾਰੀ/Bihari

ਪੀਂਘ (swing)
ਮੀਂਹ (rain)
ਅਸੀਂ (we)

3. ਲਾਂ/Laan

ਭੇਂਟ (meeting)
ਗੇਂਦ (ball)
ਸਕੇਂ (conditional form of the verb ' ਸਕਣਾ')

4. ਦੁਲਾਵਾਂ/Dulavaan

ਮੈਂ (I)
ਪੈਂਟ (pants)
ਦੁਲੈਂਕੜ (one of the vowel symbols)

5. ਹੋੜਾ/Hora

ਭੋਂ (land)
ਵਸੋਂ (settlement)
ਵਰਤੋਂ (use)

6. ਕਨੌੜਾ/Kanaura

ਲੌਂਗ (clove or nose-pin)
ਭੌਂਕਣਾ (to bark)
ਔਂਕੜ (one of the vowel symbols)


1. ਮੁਕਤਾ/Mukta

ਅੰਬ (mango)
ਮੰਗ (demand)
ਸੁਰੰਗ (tunnel)

2. ਸਿਹਾਰੀ/Sihari

ਲਿੰਗ (gender or male genital)
ਪਿੰਡ (village or body)
ਪਿੰਜਰ (skeleton)

3. ਔਂਕੜ/Aunkar

ਧੁੰਦ (fog)
ਸਹੁੰ (oath)
ਨਹੁੰ (nail)

4. ਦੁਲੈਂਕੜ/Dulainkar

ਕੂੰਜੀ (key)
ਬੂੰਦ (drop)
ਭੂੰਡ (drone bee)


1. ਉ

ਉਂਞ (that way)
ਸਿਉਂਕ (termite)
ਵਿਉਂਤ (plan)

2. ਊ

ਮਾਊਂ (child's word for a bug)
ਮਿਆਊਂ (meow)

Thursday, 9 January 2014

ਟੱਬਰ ٹبر Family

Punjabi has a unique name for every relationship be it with your daughter-in-law's mother or your husband's father's elder brother's wife (uncle of spouse). All various types of uncles and aunts and cousins and what not have a different Punjabi name!!! Let's get going then:

Family: ਟੱਬਰ/ਪਰਿਵਾਰ/ਖ਼ਾਨਦਾਨ ٹبر/پریوار/خاندان
Relation: ਰਿਸ਼ਤਾ رشتہ
Relative(s): ਰਿਸ਼ਤੇਦਾਰ رشتے دار

Father: ਪਿਤਾ/ਪਿਓ/ਬਾਪ/ਬਾਪੂ/ਅੱਬਾ/ਪਾਪਾ/ਡੈਡੀ پتا/پیو/باپ/باپو/ابا/پاپا/ڈیڈی
Mother: ਮਾਤਾ/ਮਾਂ/ਬੇਬੇ/ਅੰਮੀ/ਮੰਮੀ/ਮਾਈ/ਝਾਈ ماتا/ماں/بے بے/امی/ممی/مائی/جھائی

Brother: ਵੀਰ/ਭਰਾ/ਭਾਈ/ਬਾਈ/ਭਾ ویر/بھرا/بھائی/بائی/بھا
Brother's wife: ਭਾਬੀ/ਭਰਜਾਈ بھابی/بھرجائی

Sister's husband: ਭਣੋਈਆ/ਭਣੇਵਾਂ/ਜੀਜਾ بھنوئیا/بھنیواں/جیجا
Sister: ਭੈਣ/ਦੀਦੀ بھین/دیدی

Son: ਪੁੱਤ/ਪੁੱਤਰ/ਬੇਟਾ پتّ/پتر/بیٹا
Son's wife: ਨੂੰਹ نونہہ

Daughter's husband: ਜੁਆਈ/ਜਵਾਈ جوائی
Daughter: ਧੀ/ਪੁੱਤਰੀ/ਬੇਟੀ دھی/پتری/بیٹی

Husband: ਪਤੀ/ਖ਼ਸਮ/ਘਰਵਾਲ਼ਾ پتی/خصم/گھروالا
Wife: ਪਤਨੀ/ਰੰਨ/ਘਰਵਾਲ਼ੀ پتنی/رنّ/گھروالی

Grandfather (maternal): ਨਾਨਾ نانا
Grandmother (maternal): ਨਾਨੀ نانی

Grandfather (paternal): ਦਾਦਾ دادا
Grandmother (paternal): ਦਾਦੀ دادی

Grandson (daughter's son): ਦੋਹਤਾ دوہتا
Granddaughter (daughter's daughter): ਦੋਹਤੀ دوہتی

Grandson (son's son): ਪੋਤਾ/ਪੋਤਰਾ پوتا/پوترا
Granddaughter (son's daughter): ਪੋਤੀ/ਪੋਤਰੀ پوتی/پوتری

Father's elder brother: ਤਾਇਆ تایا
Father's elder brother's wife: ਤਾਈ تائی

Father's younger brother: ਚਾਚਾ چاچا
Father's younger brother's wife: ਚਾਚੀ چاچی

Father's sister's husband: ਫੁੱਫੜ پھپھڑ
Father's sister: ਭੂਆ بھوآ

Mother's brother: ਮਾਮਾ ماما
Mother's brother's wife: ਮਾਮੀ مامی

Mother's sister's husband: ਮਾਸੜ ماسڑ
Mother's sister: ਮਾਸੀ ماسی

Sister's son: ਭਾਣਜਾ بھانجا
Sister's son's wife: ਭਾਣਜ-ਨੂੰਹ بھانج-نونہہ

Sister's daughter's husband: ਭਾਣਜ-ਜੁਆਈ بھانج-جوائی
Sister's daughter: ਭਾਣਜੀ بھانجی

Brother's son: ਭਤੀਜਾ بھتیجا
Brother's son's wife: ਭਤੀਜ-ਨੂੰਹ بھتیج-نونہہ

Brother's daughter's husband: ਭਤੀਜ-ਜੁਆਈ بھتیج-جوائی
Brother's daughter: ਭਤੀਜੀ بھتیجی

Father-in-law: ਸਹੁਰਾ سہرا
Mother-in-law: ਸੱਸ سسّ

Husband's elder brother: ਜੇਠ جیٹھ
Husband's elder brother's wife: ਜੇਠਾਣੀ جیٹھانی

Husband's younger brother: ਦਿਉਰ دیور
Husband's younger brother's wife: ਦਰਾਣੀ درانی

Husband's sister's husband: ਨੰਦੋਈਆ نندوئیا
Husband's sister: ਨਨਾਣ ننان

Wife's brother: ਸਾਲ਼ਾ سالا
Wife's brother's wife: ਸਾਲ਼ੇਹਾਰ سالیہار

Wife's sister's husband: ਸਾਂਢੂ سانڈھو
Wife's sister: ਸਾਲ਼ੀ سالی

Child's father-in-law: ਕੁੜਮ کڑم
Child's mother-in-law: ਕੁੜਮਣੀ کڑمنی

Spouse's mother's father: ਨਨਿਆਹੁਰਾ ننیاہرا
Spouse's mother's mother: ਨਨੇਸ ننیس

Spouse's father's father: ਦਦਿਆਹੁਰਾ ددیاہرا
Spouse's father's mother: ਦਦੇਸ ددیس

Spouse's father's brother: ਪਤਿਆਹੁਰਾ پتیاہرا
Spouse's father's brother's wife: ਪਤੀਸ پتیس

Spouse's father's sister's husband: ਫਫਿਆਹੁਰਾ پھپھیاہرا
Spouse's father's sister: ਫਫੇਸ پھپھیس

Spouse's mother's brother: ਮਮਿਆਹੁਰਾ ممیاہرا
Spouse's mother's brother's wife: ਮਮੇਸ ممیس

Paternal grandfather's father: ਪੜਦਾਦਾ پڑدادا
Paternal grandfather's mother: ਪੜਦਾਦੀ پڑدادی

Son of grandson: ਪੜਪੋਤਾ/ਪੜੋਤਾ پڑپوتا/پڑوتا
Daughter of grandson: ਪੜਪੋਤੀ/ਪੜੋਤੀ پڑپوتی/پڑوتی

Maternal grandfather's father: ਪੜਨਾਨਾ پڑنانا
Maternal grandfather's mother: ਪੜਨਾਨੀ پڑنانی

Son of granddaughter: ਪੜਦੋਹਤਾ پڑدوہتا
Daughter of granddaughter: ਪੜਦੋਹਤੀ پڑدوہتی

Paternal grandfather's grandfather: ਨਕੜਦਾਦਾ نکڑدادا
Paternal grandfather's grandmother: ਨਕੜਦਾਦੀ نکڑدادی

Grandson of grandson: ਨਕੜਪੋਤਾ/ਨਕੜੋਤਾ نکڑپوتا/نکڑوتا
Granddaughter of grandson: ਨਕੜਪੋਤੀ/ਨਕੜੋਤੀ نکڑپوتی/نکڑوتی

Maternal grandfather's grandfather: ਨਕੜਨਾਨਾ نکڑنانا
Maternal grandfather's grandmother: ਨਕੜਨਾਨੀ نکڑنانی

Grandson of granddaughter: ਨਕੜਦੋਹਤਾ نکڑدوہتا
Granddaughter of granddaughter: ਨਕੜਦੋਹਤੀ نکڑدوہتی

The next stage relations are ਪਕੜਦਾਦਾ (Paternal grandfather's grandfather's father...are you kidding me!!!), ਪਕੜਦਾਦੀ, ਪਕੜਨਾਨਾ, ਪਕੜਨਾਨੀ, ਪਕੜੋਤਾ, ਪਕੜੋਤੀ, ਪਕੜਦੋਹਤਾ, ਪਕੜਦੋਹਤੀ.

Phew!! That was something. Imagine the scene of a Punjabi family reunion!!

But fret not. Most of the times, a simple Uncle Ji and Auntie Ji would do though calling someone by the exact relation has its own charm.

P.S.: Don't forget to put Ji (ਜੀ/) after every word for relative. It's what would separate a sophisticate from a rube.